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Malleray — December 23, , a bombing of a property of an anti-separatist group leader. Studen — February 27, , bombing of a railway line. Delemont — March 12, , bombing of a branch of the Cantonal Bank of Berne. Mont-Crosin — May 29, , arson against a hotel. Demonstrators on both sides were injured. Moutier — September 4, bombing of the district court.
Reussilles — September 11 and 23, , arson against a munitions depot. Perrefitte — October 21, , bombing of a shooting range. Montbautier — May 24, , arson against a German-language school, previously vandalized. Courtelary — January 7, , bombing of a house of an anti-separatist. Berne — January 7, , premature explosion of a bomb in a car killing one person. Here we show the correlation of predicted and reported violence for the former Yugoslavia without administrative or topographical boundaries Fig.
Results are shown as a function of threshold for violence divided by the maximum propensity for violence. Each curve is labelled by the characteristic length km. Compare with Figure S4. We also provide a similar analysis of the former Yugoslavia including Macedonia and Slovenia, without Fig. Without political boundaries the agreement of predicted and reported violence is dramatically reduced. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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Published online May Alexander S. Jesus Gomez-Gardenes, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Jun 23; Accepted Mar This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract We consider the conditions of peace and violence among ethnic groups, testing a theory designed to predict the locations of violence and interventions that can promote peace. Introduction Efforts to resolve conflicts and achieve sustained peace are guided by perspectives about how conflict and peace are based in interpersonal and intergroup relationships, as well as historical, social, economic and political contexts.
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Research Methods in Legal Translation and Interpreting: Crossing Methodological Boundaries
Figure 1. Maps of Switzerland showing the census proportion of A linguistic groups, B Catholics and Protestants Mercator projection. Geographical Distribution Theory The geographical distribution theory  is independent of the specification of the individual types — consistent with a universality of type behavior. Results Switzerland We now consider the linguistic and religious groups in Switzerland, each in turn. Language and topographical barriers We study the three main language groups — German, French and Italian Fig. Figure 2. Linguistic groups and topographical boundaries in Switzerland.
Figure 3. Effect of topographical boundaries on the propensity to linguistic conflict in Switzerland. Figure 4. Religious groups and political boundaries in Switzerland. Figure 5. Effect of political boundaries on the propensity to religious conflict in Switzerland. Yugoslavia Our modified method including boundaries was tested on the previous case study of Yugoslavia, consisting of the combined area of Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro.
Ethnic groups, political borders, and topographical boundaries, in the former Yugoslavia. Discussion Summary of model comparisons with the data We briefly summarize seven categories of distinct sucessful comparisons between model predictions and the observed data that are contained in the results. Conclusions This work is part of a broader effort to use new methods for quantitative analysis of patterns of violence and their prevention  — .
Methods Identifying the propensity to violence using a wavelet filter The potential for conflict is quantified in our model using a wavelet filter  ,  ,  , . Correlations of predicted and actual violence using proximity maps The points of predicted violence and reported violence do not precisely overlap within the assumptions of the model.
Topographical and administrative boundaries We model both topographical and administrative boundaries within a country as preventing intergroup violence across them, similar to national boundaries in the earlier method . Unpopulated sites Some small areas are unpopulated. Figure 7.
Sensitivity of the analysis for Switzerland to different treatment of unpopulated areas. Census data for Switzerland The commune composition used in our calculations was based on the census of and published by the Swiss Statistical Office. Elevation edges in Switzerland and Yugoslavia at different thresholds We investigate the robustness of our analysis to variation of the gradient threshold that determines the presence of a topographical boundary and compare the results for linguistic groups in Switzerland.
Chapter 28: Methodological approaches in economics and anthropology
Sensitivity of the analysis to the topographical barrier threshold. Religion census in Switzerland In the main paper we reported the propensity for violence between religious groups for the census for the characteristic length of 24 km. Figure 9. Religious groups in Switzerland according to interpolated census. Figure Effect of political boundaries on the propensity to religious conflict in Switzerland census.
Switzerland analysis at multiple length scales In this section we show the results of calculations of the propensity for violence for languages and religions in Switzerland for a range of characteristic lengths, demonstrating the robustness of these results. Calculated propensity to violence between linguistic groups in Switzerland. Calculated propensity to violence between religious groups in Switzerland census.
Specific events, listed by location: Glovelier — March 24, , arson against a military arsenal. Yugoslavia technical details Here we show the correlation of predicted and reported violence for the former Yugoslavia without administrative or topographical boundaries Fig. Correlation of proximity maps of predicted and reported violence in Yugoslavia without topographical or political boundaries. Yugoslavia correlation analysis with administrative boundaries. Yugoslavia correlation analysis with topographical boundaries.
Yugoslavia correlation analysis including Slovenia and Macedonia without boundaries. Yugoslavia correlation analysis including Slovenia and Macedonia with political boundaries. References 1.
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New Haven: Yale University Press. Schmid C Conflict and consensus in Switzerland. Berkley: University of California Press. Martin W An essay on the formation of a confederation of states. London: G. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. Bonaparte N Proclomation de St. Steiner J Conflict resolution in Switzerland. Glass H Ethnic diversity, elite accommodation and federalism in Switzerland. Publius 7 : 31— Linder W Swiss democracy: Possible solutions to conflict in multi-cultural societies.
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